Underwater Radiated Noise and Sealife. Powerships and noise emittance. maritime studies

Terrestial and Underwater Radiated Noise from Powerships: Testing and Evaluation

The increase in shipping activity globally has resulted in an increased awareness of impacts on the marine environment. Effects of noise pollution, especially on marine life, have become highly prominent. Marine life is extremely sensitive to noise pollution. Due to their extreme reliance on underwater sounds for basic life functions like searching for food and mate and an absence of any mechanism to safeguard them against it, underwater noise pollution disrupts marine life (Singla, 2020). In short, marine animals depend on sound to live, making and listening to it in various ways to perform various life functions (US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 2014).

Noise travels much more in water, covering greater distances than it would do on land while travelling through air. Underwater sound has both pressure and particle motion components and hearing can be defined as the relative contribution of each of these sound components to auditory detection (Popper AN, 2011). Sounds radiated from ships are among the underwater noise sources. Among shipborne Underwater Radiated Noise (URN) sources are the following:

  • Propeller’s rotational turn and the blades hitting to water flow lines
  • Propeller’s cavitation
  • Ship hull structure’s interaction water (fluid-structure interaction)
  • Mechanical noises from onboard machinery
Underwater Radiated Noise and Sealife. Powerships and noise emittance. maritime studies
Diagram Illustrating Three Significant Paths of Underwater Noise Generation from Machinery (NCE Report 07-001, 2007).

Click here to read the report generated by NCE (NCE Report 07-001, 2007)

All of these noise sources are radiated to underwater from ships, especially when the ship speed is at higher rates, i.e. above 15 knots.

When a Powership is considered, out of the 4 aforementioned noises, only mechanical noise sources are of concern as there are no noises that emanate from the other three sources because the Powership is docked. Mechanical onboard noises are still of concern and therefore need to be evaluated and tested for the assessment of their potential negative effects to marine life.

GDS Engineering R&D has the capability for measuring the underwater radiated noise and assessment of the results based on the effect to the sealife in the region.

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Maritime Training and Research

Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET)Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.
Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.MILPER, Project Studies with Dr Ismail Cicek 2012-2014, Maritime Propeller R&D, Development and Testing
Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.Karpowership logo - GDS Engineering R&D Services Karadeniz HoldingEngine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.
Simulator Studies in Cooperation between SDT and GDS Engineering R&Dtuzeks gds Engine Room Simulator (ERS) Engine Tests, Vibration Testing, Consultancy, KOSGEB Project
Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.
tülomsaş, R&D study, Milli Dizel Motoru Çalışması, ARGE, TÜBİTAK, Dizel Motorlarda Verimlilik, İTÜ
Maritime Studies. Man Overboard. Denize Adam Düşmesi. Maritime Accident Investigation Reports. Maritime Research. IMO GISIS. Database. Veritabanı Oluşturulması. EU Project. TUBITAK. ITU Maritime Faculty. İTÜ Denizcilik Fakültesi. Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms. Root Cause Analysis. Root Cause Flow Charts. Collision Accidents. Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. MCA. , Fault tree method, Multiple correspondence analysis, Collision Regulation, CollReg. Human Error. The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

A New Study Published in the Ocean Engineering Journal: “Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis”

Journal Article:

Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 1 February 2022, 110514

Hasan Ugurlu, Ismail Cicek, Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis, Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 2022, 110514, ISSN 0029-8018,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110514.
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801821017923)

Authors

Hasan Uğurlu and Ismail Cicek

Highlights

• 513 ship collision accidents for all ship types, dated since 1977, were studied.
• 39 primary causes for collisions were examined with fault tree analysis.
• Importance and probability values for each primary cause are presented.
• Results indicate which COLREG Rules are violated the most.
• Recommendations are provided for reducing the potential collision accidents.

Abstract

Our research study indicates that, over the past few decades, the expected decrease in the number of maritime accidents has not occurred. The statistics show the collision and contact types of marine accidents have always been the most frequent. Primary causes that contribute to ship collisions were collected from 513 collision accidents reported since 1977, which is the date the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs) came into effect. The root causes of ship-to-ship collisions were determined statistically. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). This provided the probability and importance of the primary causes contributing to the ship collision accidents and defined minimal cut sets. Results show that the violation of the COLREG Rules is the most important and effective factor for collision accidents. Therefore, further analysis was conducted and the results showed which type of COLREG Rules mostly violated statistically. The primary causes were also examined by Multiple Correspondence Analysis, and it was determined that maneuvering and perception errors were the most effective factors in collision accidents. The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

Read more at Ocean Engieering journal…

Keywords

Maritime accidents, Ship collision, Fault tree method, Multiple correspondence analysis, Collision regulation, Human error

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110514

Why is this Paper Important?

The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

  • 513 ship collision accidents for all ship types, dated since 1977, were studied.
  • 39 primary causes for collisions were examined with fault tree analysis.
  • Importance and probability values for each primary cause are presented.
  • Results indicate which COLREG Rules are violated the most.
  • Recommendations are provided for reducing the potential collision accidents.
Maritime Studies. Man Overboard. Denize Adam Düşmesi. Maritime Accident Investigation Reports. Maritime Research. IMO GISIS. Database. Veritabanı Oluşturulması. EU Project. TUBITAK. ITU Maritime Faculty. İTÜ Denizcilik Fakültesi. Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms.

Maritime Investigation Reports Involving Man-Over-Board (MOB) Casualties: A Methodology for Evaluation Process

Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, Vol: 5 No: 2 (2019) 141-170.

Authors

Orhan Gönel and İsmail Çiçek

Abstract

Flag states must issue their maritime investigation reports in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) circulars with the inclusion of ‘lessons learned’ items from recorded accidents or incidents. To identify the root cause of an event, there must be enough detail of information about the investigated event presented in reports. The information included in reports may help identifying the procedural deficiencies or technical challenges. Considering the Man-Over- Board (MOB) events as a sub group of maritime accident  nvestigations, authors systematically reviewed over 100 reports containing MOB events in this study.

In this study, reports are reviewed and major differences in formats as well as level and type of information are recorded. A systematic methodology for reviewing and reporting the overall information retrieved from maritime accident reports is presented. To cover all information from reviewed reports, 113 information items are identified. An associated standard form is developed for use in extracting information from all investigation reports. Enabling the data collected systematically from reports, issued by the world maritime accident reporting states and agencies, and successively populated into a database for overall analysis, this form is called “Maritime MOB Events Investigation Form (MEI Form)”. This paper presents the content of the MEI Form and demonstrates the methodology of use for retrieving, formatting and analyzing the information from the MOB investigation reports using case examples.

Click to see published paper for more reading.

Keywords

Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms.

Highlights

  • A Form was developed and proposed for use in accident investigations.
  • Using the form and entry into a database, maritime accident investigation data is digitized.
  • Statistical Data for MOB Events were obtained and presented.
  • results provide useful data for having lessons learned items.
  • Provides a methodology for root-cause of MOB events.
  • Lessons learnt process is automated.