Prevention of Maritime Accidents. Maritime Studies. Man Overboard. Denize Adam Düşmesi. Maritime Accident Investigation Reports. Maritime Research. IMO GISIS. Database. Veritabanı Oluşturulması. EU Project. TUBITAK. ITU Maritime Faculty. İTÜ Denizcilik Fakültesi. Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms. Root Cause Analysis. Root Cause Flow Charts. Collision Accidents. Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. MCA. , Fault tree method, Multiple correspondence analysis, Collision Regulation, CollReg. Human Error. The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

Categories of Maritime (Ship) Accident Types and Research Studies

Categories of Maritime (Ship) Accident Types

Lloyds Maritime Information Services (LMIS) has a casualty database which divides the maritime (ship) accidents into the following categories:

1. Foundered – includes ships which sank as a result of heavy weather, leaks, breaking into two, etc, and not as a consequence of other categories such as collision etc.

2. Missing vessel – includes ships that disappeared without any trace or witnesses knowing exactly what happened in the accident.

3. Fire/explosion – includes ships where fire/explosion is the first event reported, or where fire/explosion results from hull/machinery damage, i.e. this category includes fires due to engine damage, but not fires due to collision etc.

4. Collision – includes ships striking or being struck by another ship, regardless of whether under way, anchored or moored. This category does not include ships striking underwater wrecks.

5. Contact – includes ships striking or being struck by an external object, but not another ship or the sea bottom. This category includes striking drilling rigs/platforms, regardless of whether in fixed position or in tow.

6. Wrecked/stranded – includes ships striking the sea bottom, shore or underwater wrecks.

7. War loss/hostilities – includes ships damaged from all hostile acts.

8. Hull/machinery damage – includes ships where the hull/machinery damage is not due to other categories such as collision etc.

9. Miscellaneous – includes lost or damaged ships which cannot be classified into any of the categories 1 through 8 due to not falling into any of the categories above or due to lack of information (e.g. an accident starting by the cargo shifting would typically be classified as miscellaneous).

Above is also referenced in Wartsila website. Man Over Board (MOB) event, a person falling into water, is not referenced in the above listing.

 

However;

IMO accidents website, Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS), refers to Man Over Board as another accident type, which may end with a death or injury. We would like to refern the following two of our publications for the details of MOB and Collision accident types:

Title: Maritime Investigation Reports Involving Man-Over-Board (MOB) Casualties: A Methodology for Evaluation Process, Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, Vol: 5 No: 2 (2019) 141-170. Authors: Orhan Gönel and İsmail Çiçek. Click this link for more information...

Title: Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis, Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 2022, 110514, ISSN 0029-8018. Authors: Hasan Ugurlu and Ismail Cicek. Click this link for more information...

 

With these studies, we categorize the maritime investigation reports into the following groups, which is more inline with the  International Maritime Organization (IMO) ‘Casualty Investigation Code’ (CI Code) (2008):

Ship:

  • Grounding/Stranding 
  • Collision/Contact/Allision
  • Fire/Explosion
  • Flooding/Foundering
  • Capsizing/Listing
  • Damage to ship or equipment

Crew:

  • Man-Over-Board (MOB)
  • Injury/Death
GDS Systems Engineering Training Programs. Online Training. Training helps reduce your design and operational risks. We provide MIL-STD-810H, RTCA-DO-160, Vibration and Shock, FAA Requirements Management courses. by Dr Ismail Cicek and a CVE certified by EASA. Tailoring of the MIL-STD-810H test methods and procedures. EUT. Equipment Under Test. Online Classes. US based intructor. US DOD. EASA. FAA. NASA. Miliary Stanrdards. Askeri Test Standartları. Çevresel Test Standart Eğitimi. Eğitim. Acceleration Testing. Aircraft Systems. RTCA-DO-160. Crash Hazard. Korozyon Testleri. Corrosion Tests. Environmental Testing of Products, provided by GDS Engineering R&D, Systems Engineering Products and Solutions. Dr. Ismail Cicek. Product Verification and Validation Courses for Integrated Systems. C-17 Military Aicraft. FAA/EASA. US DoD. Safety First. US Army. US Air Force and US Navy Tailoring Examples for Mission and Environmental Profile. Setting Test Limits and Durations are Explained. How to evaluate test results and mitigate the risk (Risk Assessment Matrix). Aircafft Equipment, Devices, Plugs, Machinary, Engines, Compressors, or Carry-on. European CE Time Schedule. DOT/FAA/AR-08/32. Requirements Engineering Management Handbook. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration.

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    GLOBAL DYNAMIC SYSTEMS (GDS)
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    About the Instructors

    The main instructor of the training is Dr Ismail Cicek. An Avionics Chief Engineer (EE) who is also a Certified Verification Engineer (FAA/EASA) also assists the trainings. Our experienced test personnel also becomes avialable for demonstrations and discussions.

    A Certified Verification Engineer (CVE) iaw FAA/EASA and with 18 years of experience. He has worked as the avionics systems chief engineer in product development of avionics systems. He is also experienced in the product testing per environmental and EMI/EMC standards and FAA/EASA certification processes.

    Our experienced personnel also support our training programs. They are actively participating in the environmental testing of products.

    Dr. Ismail Cicek studied PhD in Mechanical Engineering Department at Texas Tech University in Texas, USA. He study included random vibration. He has both industrial and academic experience for over 30 years.

    He gained engineering and leadership experience by working in the United States Department of Defence projects and programs as systems development engineer for 15 years. He led the development of various engineering systems for platforms including C-5, C-17, KC-10, KC-135, and C-130 E/H/J.  Dr. Cicek’s experience includes unmanned aerial vehicle development where he utilized the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Malfunction Data Recorder Analysis Recorder System (MADARS) development for military transport aircraft. 

    Dr Cicek worked as the lab chief engineer for five years at the US Air Force Aeromedical Test Lab at WPAFB, OH. He received many important awards at the positions he served, due to the excellent team-work and his detail oriented and energetic personality.  These included Terra Health’s Superior Client Award in 2009 and Engineering Excellence Award in 2010 as well as an appreciation letter from the US Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC), signed by the commander in charge.

    Dr Cicek also established a test lab, called Marine Equipment Test Center (METC) and located at Istanbul Technical University, Tuzla Campus, for testing of equipment per military and civilian standards, such as RTCA-DO-160. Providing engineering, consultancy, and training services to many companies and organizations, Dr. Cicek has gained a great insight into the tailoring of standard test methods in accordance with military standards, guides, and handbooks as well as Life Cycle Environmental Profile LCEP) developed for the equipment under test.

    Dr. Cicek also completed various product and research projects, funded in the USA, EU, and Turkey. He is currently teaching at Istanbul Technical University Maritime Faculty, Tuzla/Istanbul. He is the founding manager of the METC in Tuzla Campus of ITU. Meanwhile, he provided engineering services, consultancies, and training to many organizations for product development, engineering research studies such a algorith development, test requirements development, and test plans and executions.

    Dr Cicek worked as the Principle Investigator and became a Subject Matter Expert (SME) at the US Air Force Aeromedical Test Lab (WPAFB/OH) for certifying the products to the US Air Force Platform Requirements. He also developed Joint Enroute Care Equipment Test Standard (JECETS) in close work with US Army Test Lab engineers and managers.

    Read DAU Paper: “A New Process for the Acceleration Test and Evaluation of Aeromedical Equipment for U.S. Air Force Safe-To-Fly Certification”. Click to display this report.

    Connect with Dr Ismail Cicek: Linkedin Page

    Click here to read more about Dr Cicek’s professional studies.

    Maritime Studies. Man Overboard. Denize Adam Düşmesi. Maritime Accident Investigation Reports. Maritime Research. IMO GISIS. Database. Veritabanı Oluşturulması. EU Project. TUBITAK. ITU Maritime Faculty. İTÜ Denizcilik Fakültesi. Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms. Root Cause Analysis. Root Cause Flow Charts. Collision Accidents. Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. MCA. , Fault tree method, Multiple correspondence analysis, Collision Regulation, CollReg. Human Error. The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

    A New Study Published in the Ocean Engineering Journal: “Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis”

    Journal Article:

    Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 1 February 2022, 110514

    Hasan Ugurlu, Ismail Cicek, Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis, Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 2022, 110514, ISSN 0029-8018,
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110514.
    (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801821017923)

    Authors

    Hasan Uğurlu and Ismail Cicek

    Highlights

    • 513 ship collision accidents for all ship types, dated since 1977, were studied.
    • 39 primary causes for collisions were examined with fault tree analysis.
    • Importance and probability values for each primary cause are presented.
    • Results indicate which COLREG Rules are violated the most.
    • Recommendations are provided for reducing the potential collision accidents.

    Abstract

    Our research study indicates that, over the past few decades, the expected decrease in the number of maritime accidents has not occurred. The statistics show the collision and contact types of marine accidents have always been the most frequent. Primary causes that contribute to ship collisions were collected from 513 collision accidents reported since 1977, which is the date the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs) came into effect. The root causes of ship-to-ship collisions were determined statistically. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). This provided the probability and importance of the primary causes contributing to the ship collision accidents and defined minimal cut sets. Results show that the violation of the COLREG Rules is the most important and effective factor for collision accidents. Therefore, further analysis was conducted and the results showed which type of COLREG Rules mostly violated statistically. The primary causes were also examined by Multiple Correspondence Analysis, and it was determined that maneuvering and perception errors were the most effective factors in collision accidents. The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

    Read more at Ocean Engieering journal…

    Keywords

    Maritime accidents, Ship collision, Fault tree method, Multiple correspondence analysis, Collision regulation, Human error

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110514

    Why is this Paper Important?

    The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

    • 513 ship collision accidents for all ship types, dated since 1977, were studied.
    • 39 primary causes for collisions were examined with fault tree analysis.
    • Importance and probability values for each primary cause are presented.
    • Results indicate which COLREG Rules are violated the most.
    • Recommendations are provided for reducing the potential collision accidents.
    Ship Engine Room Simulator (ERS) SERS GDS Engineering R&D IMO STCW 2010, Engine Performance, Main Diesel Engine, Marine, Maritime, IMO Model Course 2.07. Certified by ClassNK. ITU Maritime Faculty. Yıldız Technical University. Competencies. Operation and Management Level. Education and Training. Assessment of Marine Engineers. Troubleshooting with Fault Tree Scnearious and Analysis Reporting. Objective Assessment. Nippon Kaiji Kyokai.High Voltage Training Functions 6600 VAC. Ship Propulsion Systems. Maritime Education and Training. Main Engine Performance. Sunken Diagrams. Energy Efficiency. Marine Engineering. Effect of Draft Change in the Ship Main Engine Performance Parameters. Management Level Training Exercices, Marine Engineering Education and Training. SERS Trademark

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    Watch the videos demonstrated by our students. Operation of the engine room machinary and system in accordance with the IMO Compentency Requirements.

    Thanks fr watching and please communicate with us if you would like to have this training system be incorporated in your training programms.

    GDS Systems Engineering Training Programs. Online Training. Training helps reduce your design and operational risks. We provide MIL-STD-810H, RTCA-DO-160, Vibration and Shock, FAA Requirements Management courses. by Dr Ismail Cicek and a CVE certified by EASA. Tailoring of the MIL-STD-810H test methods and procedures. EUT. Equipment Under Test. Online Classes. US based intructor. US DOD. EASA. FAA. NASA. Miliary Stanrdards. Askeri Test Standartları. Çevresel Test Standart Eğitimi. Eğitim. Acceleration Testing. Aircraft Systems. RTCA-DO-160. Crash Hazard. Korozyon Testleri. Corrosion Tests. Environmental Testing of Products, provided by GDS Engineering R&D, Systems Engineering Products and Solutions. Dr. Ismail Cicek. Product Verification and Validation Courses for Integrated Systems. C-17 Military Aicraft. FAA/EASA. US DoD. Safety First. US Army. US Air Force and US Navy Tailoring Examples for Mission and Environmental Profile. Setting Test Limits and Durations are Explained. How to evaluate test results and mitigate the risk (Risk Assessment Matrix). Aircafft Equipment, Devices, Plugs, Machinary, Engines, Compressors, or Carry-on. European CE Time Schedule.

    Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) of Marine Devices and Electrical Equipment

    Devices used onboard a ship are exposed to harsh electromagnetic environments, whether in the propulsion, deck or bridge area of a ship. Testing of such devices for Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) is therefore very important. Otherwise, manufacturers can face difficulties during the certification and procurement stages.

    EMC testing and certification  services to ensure your marine products comply with relevant international standards and regulations is a MUST!

    GDS Engineering R&D does not perform these tests yet; however, have the information on design and test knowledge. The requirements include the international conventions as agreed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).

    Currently, we have observed that these tests are conducted by reputable agencies like ELEMENT.

    The testing laboratories use the following standards to test the marine electronic, digital or electrical devices for certification to IMO SOLAS requirements, guidance, or recommendations:

    • IEC 60945
    • IEC 60533
    • Lloyds Register Test Spec No 1
    • DNV Certification Notes 2.4
    • IEC 60092

    Click this link to read more about ELEMENT’s advertisements.  Element also provides the following additional information in their website:

    Support and guidance from the initial design stage

    The use of composite materials in ship construction together with new radio technologies and high power electronics are changing the requirements and design goals that need to be achieved to ensure electromagnetic compatibility.  Element is well placed with our knowledge of both standards and the target environment to provide detailed guidance of the best compliance strategies to adopt for your marine products.

    CE Marking and Wheel Mark certification

    Element performs EMC testing in conjunction with climatic and environmental test requirements to meet dedicated marine standards and be compliant with CE marking legislation. We make sure your marine equipment complies with the relevant EMC standards listed in the Marine Equipment Directive to help you achieve the Wheel Mark certification.

    EMC test plans
    Online Training on MIL-STD-810H, RTCA-DO-160, MIL-STD-461G, MIL-STD-704 Environmental Testing of Products, provided by GDS Engineering R&D, Systems Engineering Products and Solutions. Training Led by a Live US-based Sr. Instructor: Dr. Ismail Cicek. Product Verification and Validation Courses for Integrated Systems. C-17 Military Aicraft. FAA/EASA. US DoD. Safety First. US Army. US Air Force and US Navy Tailoring Examples for Mission and Environmental Profile. Setting Test Limits and Durations are Explained. How to evaluate test results and mitigate the risk (Risk Assessment Matrix). Aircafft Equipment, Devices, Plugs, Machinary, Engines, Compressors, or Carry-on. European CE Time Schedule. FAA Requirements Management. Efficient way of learning. Continues Education. Class Material.

    Our test facilities for both EMC and environmental provide a comprehensive portfolio of tests to ensure that whatever your marine equipment is, and no matter where it’s located, we have a test solution that matches your needs.

    Coordinated approach to testing for global market access

    Our expertise comes from testing thousands of different products every year, and our industry-leading capacity allows us appropriate coordination of testing, so your marine equipment meets common standards of safety and performance across the EU and is accepted for entry into world markets.

    For more information, we currently advice you contact with Element support desk.