Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları ile Sıfır Emisyonlu Yat Tasarımı ve Simülasyonları

Research Article: “Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları ile Sıfır Emisyonlu bir Yelkenli Tekne Tasarımı ve Seyir Simülasyonları”

Reference:

Nomak, H. S. & Cicek, I. (2022). Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları ile Sıfır Emisyonlu bir Yelkenli Tekne Tasarımı ve Seyir Simülasyonları . Çevre İklim ve Sürdürülebilirlik , 1 (1) , 41-54 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/itucis/issue/68628/1050691.

Özet

Mevcut bir yelkenli deniz aracının karbon salınımı yapan sistemleri incelenmiş, tekne performans değerleri belirlenmiş ve “sıfır emisyon” hedefi ile yelkenli deniz aracına entegre yenilenebilir enerji sistemleri ve tasarım değişiklikleri çalışılmıştır. Gerçek meteorolojik şartlar ve işletim senaryoları ile enerji üretimi, depolanması ve tüketimi simülasyon analizleri ile gösterilmiştir. Yenilenebilir enerji üretim birimleri iki kaynak grubu olarak değerlendirilmiştir. İlk grupta, statik enerji üretim sistemleri olarak adlandırılan ve teknenin seyir, demirde bekleme veya limanda bağlı iken enerji üretebilen sistemleri içermektedir. Bu kısımda güneş enerji panelleri ile iki rüzgâr türbini tasarımda kullanılmıştır. Dinamik enerji üretim sistemleri olarak adlandırdığımız ikinci guruptaki birimler, teknenin yelkenli seyri esnasında su akışı enerjisinden faydalanmak amacıyladır. Bunlar, iki adet su türbini ile itici ve aynı zamanda enerji üretici birimi olarak da çalışabilen bir elektrik motorunu içermektedir. Her bir enerji üretim sistemi tasarımları performans ve 3-boyutlu yerleşim bakımından değerlendirilmiştir.

Önerilen sistemin doğrulaması üç ayrı senaryo analizi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. İlk iki senaryo ile Marmara denizinde tipik yelkenli tekne operasyonlarının yapılabildiği gösterilmiştir. Üçüncü senaryo olan acil durum senaryosu ile gün içerisinde, rüzgar şiddeti sıfır iken ve tamamen dolu bataryalar ile, seyir senaryosu programı yürütülmüş ve bataryaların %35 enerji kullandığı hesaplanmıştır. Bu senaryo çalışmaları ile normal yat tipi bir teknenin tüm operasyonlarının tasarımı çalışılan yenilenebilir enerji kaynakları ile karşılandığı gösterilmiştir. Teknenin tüm operasyonlarında karadan elektrik bağlantısı gerekmediği gösterilmiştir.

Abstract

The carbon emission systems of an existing sailing vessel were examined, the boat performance values were determined, and additional renewable energy systems and design changes were studied for obtaining “zero emission”. Real meteorological conditions and operating scenarios have been determined and accordingly, energy production, storage and consumption have been demonstrated by simulations. Renewable energy production units are evaluated as two resource groups. In the first group, there are systems called static energy generation systems and that can generate energy both while the boat is underway, at anchor or in port. In this section, solar energy panels and two wind turbines are evaluated in the design. These units, called dynamic energy generation systems, are intended to benefit from the energy of the water flow during the sailing of the boat. These include two water turbines and an electric motor that can act as a propulsion and also an energy generating unit. Each power generation system has been evaluated for both performance and 3-dimensional positioning.

The verification of the proposed system was carried out with three different scenario analyzes. With the first two scenarios, it has been shown that typical sailboat operations can be performed in the Sea of Marmara. With the third “emergency scenario”, a navigation program was developed and simulated during the day, when the wind speed was zero and with fully charged batteries, and it was calculated that only 35% of battery energy was used. With these scenario studies, it has been shown that all operations of a normal yacht are covered by the renewable energy sources studied. It has been shown that no shore connection is required in any boat operation.

Geleneksel yelkenli yat tipi mevcut teknenin bir yan görünümü.

Keywords: Marine Vehicles, Zero Emission, Renewable Energy Resources, Propulsion System, Water Turbines.

Şekil: Türbinlerin ve diğer enerji kaynaklarının tekne üzerindeki konumu: Yan görünüm.

Link for the full manuscript: https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/itucis/issue/68628/105069.

Underwater Radiated Noise and Sealife. Powerships and noise emittance. maritime studies

Terrestial and Underwater Radiated Noise from Powerships: Testing and Evaluation

The increase in shipping activity globally has resulted in an increased awareness of impacts on the marine environment. Effects of noise pollution, especially on marine life, have become highly prominent. Marine life is extremely sensitive to noise pollution. Due to their extreme reliance on underwater sounds for basic life functions like searching for food and mate and an absence of any mechanism to safeguard them against it, underwater noise pollution disrupts marine life (Singla, 2020). In short, marine animals depend on sound to live, making and listening to it in various ways to perform various life functions (US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 2014).

Noise travels much more in water, covering greater distances than it would do on land while travelling through air. Underwater sound has both pressure and particle motion components and hearing can be defined as the relative contribution of each of these sound components to auditory detection (Popper AN, 2011). Sounds radiated from ships are among the underwater noise sources. Among shipborne Underwater Radiated Noise (URN) sources are the following:

  • Propeller’s rotational turn and the blades hitting to water flow lines
  • Propeller’s cavitation
  • Ship hull structure’s interaction water (fluid-structure interaction)
  • Mechanical noises from onboard machinery
Underwater Radiated Noise and Sealife. Powerships and noise emittance. maritime studies
Diagram Illustrating Three Significant Paths of Underwater Noise Generation from Machinery (NCE Report 07-001, 2007).

Click here to read the report generated by NCE (NCE Report 07-001, 2007)

All of these noise sources are radiated to underwater from ships, especially when the ship speed is at higher rates, i.e. above 15 knots.

When a Powership is considered, out of the 4 aforementioned noises, only mechanical noise sources are of concern as there are no noises that emanate from the other three sources because the Powership is docked. Mechanical onboard noises are still of concern and therefore need to be evaluated and tested for the assessment of their potential negative effects to marine life.

GDS Engineering R&D has the capability for measuring the underwater radiated noise and assessment of the results based on the effect to the sealife in the region.

References of GDS Simulator Products
&
Engineering/Consultancy Services
in
Maritime Training and Research

Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET)Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.
Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.MILPER, Project Studies with Dr Ismail Cicek 2012-2014, Maritime Propeller R&D, Development and Testing
Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.Karpowership logo - GDS Engineering R&D Services Karadeniz HoldingEngine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.
Simulator Studies in Cooperation between SDT and GDS Engineering R&Dtuzeks gds Engine Room Simulator (ERS) Engine Tests, Vibration Testing, Consultancy, KOSGEB Project
Engine Room Simulator (ERS). Ship Engine Room Simulator. IMO STCW 2010 Training. Marine Engineering Cadets. Maritime. IMO Model Course 2.07. Online Training. COVID-19. Certified by Class NK, IACS Member. Maritime Education and Training (MET). Containership. Yacht Taining. Tanker Personnel.
tülomsaş, R&D study, Milli Dizel Motoru Çalışması, ARGE, TÜBİTAK, Dizel Motorlarda Verimlilik, İTÜ
Prevention of Maritime Accidents. Maritime Studies. Man Overboard. Denize Adam Düşmesi. Maritime Accident Investigation Reports. Maritime Research. IMO GISIS. Database. Veritabanı Oluşturulması. EU Project. TUBITAK. ITU Maritime Faculty. İTÜ Denizcilik Fakültesi. Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms. Root Cause Analysis. Root Cause Flow Charts. Collision Accidents. Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. MCA. , Fault tree method, Multiple correspondence analysis, Collision Regulation, CollReg. Human Error. The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.

Categories of Maritime (Ship) Accident Types and Research Studies

Categories of Maritime (Ship) Accident Types

Lloyds Maritime Information Services (LMIS) has a casualty database which divides the maritime (ship) accidents into the following categories:

1. Foundered – includes ships which sank as a result of heavy weather, leaks, breaking into two, etc, and not as a consequence of other categories such as collision etc.

2. Missing vessel – includes ships that disappeared without any trace or witnesses knowing exactly what happened in the accident.

3. Fire/explosion – includes ships where fire/explosion is the first event reported, or where fire/explosion results from hull/machinery damage, i.e. this category includes fires due to engine damage, but not fires due to collision etc.

4. Collision – includes ships striking or being struck by another ship, regardless of whether under way, anchored or moored. This category does not include ships striking underwater wrecks.

5. Contact – includes ships striking or being struck by an external object, but not another ship or the sea bottom. This category includes striking drilling rigs/platforms, regardless of whether in fixed position or in tow.

6. Wrecked/stranded – includes ships striking the sea bottom, shore or underwater wrecks.

7. War loss/hostilities – includes ships damaged from all hostile acts.

8. Hull/machinery damage – includes ships where the hull/machinery damage is not due to other categories such as collision etc.

9. Miscellaneous – includes lost or damaged ships which cannot be classified into any of the categories 1 through 8 due to not falling into any of the categories above or due to lack of information (e.g. an accident starting by the cargo shifting would typically be classified as miscellaneous).

Above is also referenced in Wartsila website. Man Over Board (MOB) event, a person falling into water, is not referenced in the above listing.

 

However;

IMO accidents website, Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS), refers to Man Over Board as another accident type, which may end with a death or injury. We would like to refern the following two of our publications for the details of MOB and Collision accident types:

Title: Maritime Investigation Reports Involving Man-Over-Board (MOB) Casualties: A Methodology for Evaluation Process, Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, Vol: 5 No: 2 (2019) 141-170. Authors: Orhan Gönel and İsmail Çiçek. Click this link for more information...

Title: Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis, Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 2022, 110514, ISSN 0029-8018. Authors: Hasan Ugurlu and Ismail Cicek. Click this link for more information...

 

With these studies, we categorize the maritime investigation reports into the following groups, which is more inline with the  International Maritime Organization (IMO) ‘Casualty Investigation Code’ (CI Code) (2008):

Ship:

  • Grounding/Stranding 
  • Collision/Contact/Allision
  • Fire/Explosion
  • Flooding/Foundering
  • Capsizing/Listing
  • Damage to ship or equipment

Crew:

  • Man-Over-Board (MOB)
  • Injury/Death
Maritime Studies. Man Overboard. Denize Adam Düşmesi. Maritime Accident Investigation Reports. Maritime Research. IMO GISIS. Database. Veritabanı Oluşturulması. EU Project. TUBITAK. ITU Maritime Faculty. İTÜ Denizcilik Fakültesi. Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms.

Maritime Investigation Reports Involving Man-Over-Board (MOB) Casualties: A Methodology for Evaluation Process

Turkish Journal of Maritime and Marine Sciences, Vol: 5 No: 2 (2019) 141-170.

Authors

Orhan Gönel and İsmail Çiçek

Abstract

Flag states must issue their maritime investigation reports in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) circulars with the inclusion of ‘lessons learned’ items from recorded accidents or incidents. To identify the root cause of an event, there must be enough detail of information about the investigated event presented in reports. The information included in reports may help identifying the procedural deficiencies or technical challenges. Considering the Man-Over- Board (MOB) events as a sub group of maritime accident  nvestigations, authors systematically reviewed over 100 reports containing MOB events in this study.

In this study, reports are reviewed and major differences in formats as well as level and type of information are recorded. A systematic methodology for reviewing and reporting the overall information retrieved from maritime accident reports is presented. To cover all information from reviewed reports, 113 information items are identified. An associated standard form is developed for use in extracting information from all investigation reports. Enabling the data collected systematically from reports, issued by the world maritime accident reporting states and agencies, and successively populated into a database for overall analysis, this form is called “Maritime MOB Events Investigation Form (MEI Form)”. This paper presents the content of the MEI Form and demonstrates the methodology of use for retrieving, formatting and analyzing the information from the MOB investigation reports using case examples.

Click to see published paper for more reading.

Keywords

Maritime Accident Investigation, Casualty Investigation Code, Man Over Board (MOB), Lessons Learned, Database, Data Format, Report Forms.

Highlights

  • A Form was developed and proposed for use in accident investigations.
  • Using the form and entry into a database, maritime accident investigation data is digitized.
  • Statistical Data for MOB Events were obtained and presented.
  • results provide useful data for having lessons learned items.
  • Provides a methodology for root-cause of MOB events.
  • Lessons learnt process is automated.