Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 1 February 2022, 110514
Hasan Ugurlu, Ismail Cicek, Analysis and assessment of ship collision accidents using Fault Tree and Multiple Correspondence Analysis, Ocean Engineering, Volume 245, 2022, 110514, ISSN 0029-8018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110514. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0029801821017923)
Hasan Uğurlu and Ismail Cicek
• 513 ship collision accidents for all ship types, dated since 1977, were studied. • 39 primary causes for collisions were examined with fault tree analysis. • Importance and probability values for each primary cause are presented. • Results indicate which COLREG Rules are violated the most. • Recommendations are provided for reducing the potential collision accidents.
Our research study indicates that, over the past few decades, the expected decrease in the number of maritime accidents has not occurred. The statistics show the collision and contact types of marine accidents have always been the most frequent. Primary causes that contribute to ship collisions were collected from 513 collision accidents reported since 1977, which is the date the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs) came into effect. The root causes of ship-to-ship collisions were determined statistically. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). This provided the probability and importance of the primary causes contributing to the ship collision accidents and defined minimal cut sets. Results show that the violation of the COLREG Rules is the most important and effective factor for collision accidents. Therefore, further analysis was conducted and the results showed which type of COLREG Rules mostly violated statistically. The primary causes were also examined by Multiple Correspondence Analysis, and it was determined that maneuvering and perception errors were the most effective factors in collision accidents. The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.
The results represent the cause statistics of the ship-to-ship collision accidents that occurred in the last 43 years. Considering the collision accident reports data, our results show %94,7 of collision accidents are related to human error.
513 ship collision accidents for all ship types, dated since 1977, were studied.
39 primary causes for collisions were examined with fault tree analysis.
Importance and probability values for each primary cause are presented.
Results indicate which COLREG Rules are violated the most.
Recommendations are provided for reducing the potential collision accidents.
Established in 2014, GDS Engineering R&D offers products and services to the transporation industry.
The vision of GDS started earlier than 2014. Our personnel has been providing engineering services in various defense programs and projects and educational services since 1997. GDS was first estblised in San Antonio, Texas in 2008, the headquarters was then moved to Istanbul, Turkey in 2014.
Established by Dr Ismail Cicek, GDS now provides engineering services and products to the industry with a small team of engineers and managers of seven (7), academic consultants or part time subject matter experts (SMEs) of more than 10, and part-time associated students of five (5).
We provide international educational services, test support, or deliver products in various locations in the world, including the main office located in Istanbul, Turkey.
Our main product is Engine Room Simulator (ERS). All of our products are listed in summary here. Our main services are training and consultancy services on environmental qualification test standards, such as MIL-STD-810H and RTCA-DO-160G.
MODERN IMO STCW TRAINING SIMULATORS
We develop and provide engine room simulator to the maritime schools, institutions, and companies. Our modern and effective Engine Room Simulator (ERS), certified by ClassNK in 2020, is already in use by many institutions around the world. Click here to read more about the GDS simulator products. Our simulator development story involves the collaborations with universities, industrial firms and governmental or non-governmental organizations.
Maritime Simulator Products
SERSTM is a certified, advanced, and Full Mission engine room simulator that can be used in both laboratory and distributed team environment training. Click to read more about SERSTM.
SESSTM is a software simulation of all electrical systems in a typical engine room. It can be used as a laboratory software or in-class demonstration software. Click to read more about SESSTM.
HVTSTM is a software, which can be used in the training of high voltage operations onboard a ship, such as Vacuum Circuit Breaker, Transformer, and high power loading to the main bus. Click to read more about HVTSTM.
VPLTM is software, which supports the laboratory sessions of Physics I and and II experiements, which are mechanical and electrical experiments, respectively. Click to read more about VPLTM sotware.
ENVIRONMENTAL TEST TRAINING FOR YOUR SUCCESS!
With years of experience in developing defence and aviations systems and environmental test experience, GDS provides training on defense, aviation, and industry test standards. Click here to read more about the details of the systems engineering and test training subjects.
Training Programs Systems Engineering | Online or Onsite | International
ENVIRONMENTAL TEST, ANALYSIS AND SUPPORT SERVICES
We also provide environmental testing services including the testing of your products to MIL-STD-810H, RTCA-DO-160G, and other military and industry standards. Some of which are vibrations, mechanical shock, low/high temperature, humidity, corrosion (salt spray, salt fog), and drop. We can help reduce your final issues in your product development through experience sharing, testing, or analysis.
We also prodive support to the industrial organisations in their product development or research projects by means of training, consultacies or services.
Our capabilities in desing and engineering solution projects, are, in summary:
Mechanical Design: Solid modeling, parts and components desing, system design (i.e., engine parts, pipes, etc) engineering system design (cooling system, hyraulic/pneumatic systems, geabox design, etc.), surface modeling, and so on.
Engineering Analysis: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Finite Element Analysis, Fluid-Structure Interaction, Vibration, Shock, and Sound Analysis, Impact Analysis, etc.
System Simulations: Our firm is developing engine simulators, in which both diesel engine processes and systems and subsystems (turbocharger, air cooler, manifolds, etc.) are modeled and simulated.
Use of the Ship Engine Room Simulator: Our engine room simulator is complete for educational use. However, it also has high level of research capabilities for use by ship operating agencies for testing and understanding their systems’ behaviors. Our simulator is basically a “twin modal” of your container type ship.
Machine Learning: With a through study of your plant parameters, we can propose and develop useful periodic reports on how to manage your systems better with problems arising before they actually occur.
GDS Engineering has the infrastructure, knowledge, personnel, and infrastructure and has taken part in international projects or to led projects. GDS has its own Project Management System (GDS-PMS) as well as Quality Management System (GDS-QMS) that help produce various tools and templates for use in project or quality management including risk-based management methods.
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Our firm, consisting of PhDs, senior engineers, and highly skilled managers, are experienced in all phases of product development and project management; requirements, research, planning, design, analysis, testing, certification, and personnel training. We provide engineering and services for your success in your project and company goals.
We utilize engineering software and tools depending on the Project requirements, when needed, for example: -3D CAD and CAM packages: AutoCAD, SolidWorks, Autodesk Inventor -Engineering Analysis and Optimization: ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS Packages, Autodesk Inventor -System Simulation: CATIA -GT-Power Engine Analysis and Simulation Software – SIL and HIL Simulations -LSTC LS Dyna -National Instruments LabVIEW, LabVIEW RT and NI DAQ/Control Hardware -Matlab, C/C++, and other software when needed.
We also develop our own engineering modeling and analysis programs. For example, we have our mathematical models developed for the analysis and simulation of diesel engines. This module helps testing of diesel engines and comparing the results against the simulated baseline system.
Energy Management in Marine Engineering: We understand and can model your marine engineering platform for identifying the deficiences for energy management for your cost saving.